## What are R logical operators?

a) Operators that combine logical expressions and return TRUE or FALSE

b) Operators that compare numerical values

c) Operators that perform arithmetic operations

d) Operators that manipulate character strings

### Answer:

a) Operators that combine logical expressions and return TRUE or FALSE

### Explanation:

R logical operators are used to combine multiple logical expressions or to negate a logical value. They return a logical value (`TRUE`

or `FALSE`

) based on the conditions. The main logical operators in R are:

**AND (&):**Returns`TRUE`

if both operands are`TRUE`

.**OR (|):**Returns`TRUE`

if at least one operand is`TRUE`

.**NOT (!):**Returns`TRUE`

if the operand is`FALSE`

and vice versa.

```
# Examples of R logical operators
a <- TRUE
b <- FALSE
print(a & b) # Output: FALSE (AND)
print(a | b) # Output: TRUE (OR)
print(!a) # Output: FALSE (NOT)
```

In this example, logical operators are used to evaluate expressions involving Boolean values `a`

and `b`

. The results show how the logical operators combine or negate these values.

Logical operators are commonly used in decision-making processes in R, such as within `if`

statements or loops, where the flow of the program depends on multiple conditions being met or not met.