Irrigation Engineering MCQ

Here is a comprehensive set of Irrigation Engineering MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions) along with answers, designed to help Civil Engineering students excel in GATE exams, technical interviews, competitive examinations, and other entrance exams. The Irrigation Engineering MCQ section holds significant importance for both Civil Engineering and GATE aspirants.

1. What is the primary purpose of irrigation in agriculture?

a) To provide aesthetics to the landscape
b) To transport water to crops
c) To supply water to crops for growth
d) To increase the temperature of the soil

Answer:

c) To supply water to crops for growth

Explanation:

The primary purpose of irrigation in agriculture is to supply water to crops, especially in areas where rainfall is insufficient or variable, ensuring healthy crop growth and yield.

2. What type of irrigation system uses a sprinkler to distribute water?

a) Drip irrigation
b) Surface irrigation
c) Sprinkler irrigation
d) Subsurface irrigation

Answer:

c) Sprinkler irrigation

Explanation:

Sprinkler irrigation is a method where water is distributed through a system of pipes and sprayed into the air through sprinklers, simulating rainfall to water crops.

3. What is the main advantage of drip irrigation?

a) It increases soil erosion
b) It requires large amounts of water
c) It minimizes water wastage
d) It is the cheapest irrigation method

Answer:

c) It minimizes water wastage

Explanation:

Drip irrigation delivers water directly to the base or root zone of plants, minimizing evaporation and runoff, and is highly efficient in water use.

4. In irrigation engineering, what does 'water conveyance' refer to?

a) Storing water in reservoirs
b) The process of transporting water from the source to the fields
c) Filtering water for impurities
d) Heating water for irrigation

Answer:

b) The process of transporting water from the source to the fields

Explanation:

Water conveyance in irrigation involves the movement of water from a source, such as a reservoir or river, through a series of channels, pipes, or ditches to the agricultural fields.

5. What is the purpose of a check dam in irrigation?

a) To store large volumes of water for city supply
b) To control floodwaters
c) To raise the water level and divert it into canals
d) To generate hydroelectric power

Answer:

c) To raise the water level and divert it into canals

Explanation:

Check dams are small, temporary or permanent dams constructed across streams to raise the water level slightly, allowing a portion of it to be diverted into irrigation canals.

6. What is meant by 'field capacity' in soil science?

a) The maximum amount of crops a field can grow
b) The maximum amount of water soil can retain after excess water has drained away
c) The ability of a field to withstand heavy machinery
d) The electrical capacity of the soil

Answer:

b) The maximum amount of water soil can retain after excess water has drained away

Explanation:

Field capacity refers to the amount of soil moisture or water content held in the soil after excess water has drained away and the rate of downward movement has decreased.

7. What role does evapotranspiration play in irrigation engineering?

a) It is the process of water evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants
b) It refers to the evaporation of water from reservoirs
c) It is the process of water absorption by plants
d) It measures the irrigation system's efficiency

Answer:

a) It is the process of water evaporation from soil and transpiration from plants

Explanation:

Evapotranspiration is a crucial factor in irrigation, as it represents the sum of water evaporated from the soil surface and transpired by plants, influencing irrigation scheduling and water requirements.

8. What is a weir used for in irrigation systems?

a) To generate electricity
b) To purify water
c) To measure the flow rate of water
d) To raise the level of river water for diversion into canals

Answer:

d) To raise the level of river water for diversion into canals

Explanation:

A weir in irrigation is a barrier across a river designed to alter its flow characteristics, typically used to raise the level of the river water so that it can be diverted into irrigation canals.

9. What does the term 'salinity' refer to in irrigation?

a) The temperature of irrigation water
b) The taste of irrigation water
c) The concentration of salts in soil or water
d) The depth of irrigation water

Answer:

c) The concentration of salts in soil or water

Explanation:

In irrigation, salinity refers to the presence of soluble salts in the soil or water. High salinity levels can be harmful to crops and must be managed carefully.

10. What is the significance of a 'command area' in irrigation engineering?

a) It is an area designated for military purposes
b) It is the total area that can be irrigated with a particular water source
c) It refers to the headquarters of the irrigation department
d) It is the area used for storing irrigation equipment

Answer:

b) It is the total area that can be irrigated with a particular water source

Explanation:

In irrigation engineering, the command area is the land that can be reliably irrigated from a given water source and is an essential aspect in designing and managing irrigation systems.

11. What does the term 'furrow irrigation' refer to?

a) Irrigating crops by flooding entire fields
b) A method where trenches are used for directing water to plant roots
c) Using automated sprinklers for irrigation
d) Harvesting water from furrows for reuse

Answer:

b) A method where trenches are used for directing water to plant roots

Explanation:

Furrow irrigation is a method where trenches or furrows are made between crop rows in a field, and water is directed to flow along these furrows, providing moisture to the plant roots.

12. What is the primary purpose of a canal lining in irrigation?

a) To enhance the aesthetic appearance of the canal
b) To prevent water seepage and loss
c) To increase the flow speed of water
d) To protect against animal damage

Answer:

b) To prevent water seepage and loss

Explanation:

Canal lining in irrigation is done to reduce seepage losses by providing an impermeable layer along the canal. This helps in conserving water and improving efficiency.

13. Why is crop rotation important in irrigated agriculture?

a) It changes the scenery of the field
b) It helps in maintaining soil fertility and controlling pests and diseases
c) It is only done for aesthetic purposes
d) It helps in reducing water usage

Answer:

b) It helps in maintaining soil fertility and controlling pests and diseases

Explanation:

Crop rotation, the practice of growing different types of crops in the same area in sequential seasons, is crucial in maintaining soil health, reducing pest and disease build-up, and improving crop yield.

14. What is a 'catchment area' in the context of irrigation engineering?

a) An area specifically designed to catch fish
b) The area from which rainfall runoff is collected
c) The area where irrigation equipment is stored
d) A designated area for water sports

Answer:

b) The area from which rainfall runoff is collected

Explanation:

In irrigation and hydrology, a catchment area is the area of land where water collects when it rains, often bounded by ridges.

15. How does the use of mulches benefit irrigation?

a) They increase the need for irrigation
b) They enhance the taste of the water
c) They reduce evaporation from the soil surface
d) They are used to color the water

Answer:

c) They reduce evaporation from the soil surface

Explanation:

Mulches are materials placed over the soil surface to maintain moisture, reduce evaporation, control weeds, and improve soil conditions, thus enhancing irrigation efficiency.

16. What is the role of a 'gated pipe' in irrigation systems?

a) It is used for decorative purposes in gardens
b) It transports water to different parts of a city
c) It delivers water directly to crop rows with minimal loss
d) It is used exclusively in residential plumbing

Answer:

c) It delivers water directly to crop rows with minimal loss

Explanation:

Gated pipes are used in irrigation systems to deliver water directly to the rows of crops through gates or openings along the pipe, reducing water wastage and improving distribution efficiency.

17. Why is it important to manage irrigation frequency and duration?

a) To make the field look better
b) To ensure optimal soil moisture and avoid waterlogging or under-watering
c) To create a rhythm in water flow
d) Only for economic reasons

Answer:

b) To ensure optimal soil moisture and avoid waterlogging or under-watering

Explanation:

Proper management of irrigation frequency and duration is crucial to maintain the right soil moisture level, providing sufficient water for crops while avoiding problems like waterlogging or drought stress.

18. What does the term 'irrigation efficiency' refer to?

a) The cost of the irrigation system
b) The aesthetic design of the irrigation system
c) The percentage of water beneficially used by the crops
d) The speed at which irrigation systems are installed

Answer:

c) The percentage of water beneficially used by the crops

Explanation:

Irrigation efficiency is a measure of how well an irrigation system delivers water to the intended crops and how much of that water is used effectively for growth and development.

19. In irrigation engineering, what is a 'surge flow' irrigation system?

a) A system that uses constant high-pressure water flow
b) An irrigation method that involves applying water in a series of on-and-off pulses
c) A technique for irrigating only during rain surges
d) A system that increases the temperature of water

Answer:

b) An irrigation method that involves applying water in a series of on-and-off pulses

Explanation:

Surge flow irrigation is a technique where water is applied to the field in a series of on-and-off pulses, rather than a continuous stream. This can improve the efficiency of water distribution and infiltration.

20. What is the main purpose of a 'diversion headwork' in irrigation systems?

a) To store water for long periods
b) To generate electricity using water flow
c) To divert water from the river into canals
d) To purify water before irrigation

Answer:

c) To divert water from the river into canals

Explanation:

Diversion headworks are structures built at the head of a canal to divert a part of the river flow into the canal. They are essential for controlling and managing the water supply for irrigation.

21. How does salinity affect irrigated land?

a) It enhances the taste of crops
b) It can lead to reduced fertility and crop yield
c) It increases the water holding capacity of soil
d) It makes the land more suitable for building construction

Answer:

b) It can lead to reduced fertility and crop yield

Explanation:

High salinity levels in irrigated land can lead to soil degradation and reduced crop yield. Salts can accumulate in the soil and affect the ability of plants to take up water and nutrients.

22. What is the main advantage of using a 'basin irrigation' system?

a) It is suitable for all types of crops
b) It allows precise control of the water application
c) It is effective for levelled fields and water-stable soils
d) It requires minimal maintenance

Answer:

c) It is effective for levelled fields and water-stable soils

Explanation:

Basin irrigation, where fields are divided into small basins and water is ponded, is particularly effective for levelled fields with soils that can withstand being waterlogged for a short period.

23. What is 'deficit irrigation'?

a) Irrigating with poor quality water
b) Applying less water than the crop evapotranspiration demands
c) Increasing the irrigation frequency to maximum levels
d) Using only rainwater for irrigation

Answer:

b) Applying less water than the crop evapotranspiration demands

Explanation:

Deficit irrigation is a strategy where water supply is reduced below optimal levels and is managed carefully to minimize stress on crops, often used in water-scarce areas.

24. In the context of irrigation, what is 'tailwater'?

a) The initial water used at the start of irrigation
b) Water that has run off at the end of an irrigation field
c) The hottest water used in irrigation
d) Water used specifically for the tail end of crops

Answer:

b) Water that has run off at the end of an irrigation field

Explanation:

Tailwater is the runoff water that collects at the lower end of an irrigated field. Managing tailwater is important to prevent water waste and potential pollution.

25. Why is it important to consider crop water requirements in irrigation engineering?

a) To determine the color of water for irrigation
b) To ensure that crops receive sufficient water for optimal growth
c) To make irrigation systems look better
d) To increase the cost of irrigation

Answer:

b) To ensure that crops receive sufficient water for optimal growth

Explanation:

Understanding crop water requirements is essential in irrigation engineering to ensure that crops receive the right amount of water at the right time for healthy growth and to optimize water use efficiency.

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