Civil Engineering MCQ – Design of Masonry Structures

A comprehensive set of MCQ (Multiple Choice Questions) and answers focused on the Design of Masonry Structures is accessible for Civil Engineering students. These resources are designed to aid in preparation for GATE exams, various technical interviews, competitive examinations, and other entrance exams. The Design of Masonry Structures MCQ section is a crucial chapter for both Civil Engineering and GATE students.

1. What is the primary material used in masonry construction?

a) Wood
b) Steel
c) Concrete
d) Brick

Answer:

d) Brick

Explanation:

Brick is the most commonly used material in masonry construction, known for its durability and strength.

2. The term 'frog' in brick masonry refers to:

a) A tool used for leveling
b) A type of mortar
c) An indentation on one bedding surface of the brick
d) A decorative pattern

Answer:

c) An indentation on one bedding surface of the brick

Explanation:

The 'frog' is an indentation on the brick's surface to reduce weight and improve the mortar-to-brick bond.

3. Which mortar type is typically used for load-bearing masonry walls?

a) Lime mortar
b) Cement mortar
c) Gypsum mortar
d) Mud mortar

Answer:

b) Cement mortar

Explanation:

Cement mortar, due to its high strength and bonding capabilities, is preferred for load-bearing masonry walls.

4. In masonry, the term 'batt' refers to:

a) A small piece of cut brick
b) A specific pattern of brick laying
c) A tool used for cutting bricks
d) A type of finish applied on the wall

Answer:

a) A small piece of cut brick

Explanation:

A 'batt' is a piece of brick cut smaller than the full size, typically used to fill gaps in masonry walls.

5. What is the main purpose of a 'damp proof course' (DPC) in masonry construction?

a) To provide insulation
b) To prevent moisture from rising through the walls
c) To add aesthetic appeal
d) To increase wall strength

Answer:

b) To prevent moisture from rising through the walls

Explanation:

A damp proof course is a barrier, usually made of waterproof material, placed in walls to prevent ground moisture from rising up the structure.

6. Which bond in brick masonry is characterized by laying all bricks as stretchers?

a) English bond
b) Flemish bond
c) Stretcher bond
d) Header bond

Answer:

c) Stretcher bond

Explanation:

In a stretcher bond, all the bricks are laid as stretchers, with the long face of the brick visible on the wall's face.

7. The crushing strength of a good quality brick should not be less than:

a) 3.5 N/mm²
b) 5.5 N/mm²
c) 10.5 N/mm²
d) 7.5 N/mm²

Answer:

b) 5.5 N/mm²

Explanation:

A good quality brick should have a minimum crushing strength of 5.5 N/mm².

8. In masonry, 'spalling' refers to:

a) The process of applying mortar
b) The splitting or breaking of a stone or brick
c) A decorative technique
d) The alignment of bricks

Answer:

b) The splitting or breaking of a stone or brick

Explanation:

Spalling in masonry is the breaking off of pieces from the surface of stone or brick, often due to freeze-thaw cycles, moisture, or structural stress.

9. The most common cause of cracks in masonry walls is:

a) Poor quality of bricks
b) Inadequate foundation
c) Thermal expansion and contraction
d) Excessive load on walls

Answer:

c) Thermal expansion and contraction

Explanation:

Cracks in masonry walls are often caused by thermal expansion and contraction of the materials due to temperature changes.

10. Ashlar masonry is characterized by:

a) Rough and uncut stones
b) Regularly shaped blocks laid in courses
c) Use of large stones at the corners
d) Random placement of stones

Answer:

b) Regularly shaped blocks laid in courses

Explanation:

Ashlar masonry involves the use of finely dressed stones, laid in regular courses and patterns.

11. The primary function of a 'lintel' in masonry construction is to:

a) Decorate the doorway
b) Support the roof
c) Provide an opening for doors and windows
d) Support the load over openings like doors and windows

Answer:

d) Support the load over openings like doors and windows

Explanation:

A lintel is a horizontal structural member placed over an opening in a wall to support the load from the structure above.

12. What is the purpose of 'weep holes' in retaining walls?

a) Aesthetic appeal
b) Structural reinforcement
c) Drainage of accumulated water
d) Ventilation

Answer:

c) Drainage of accumulated water

Explanation:

Weep holes in retaining walls are provided for drainage, allowing water to escape and reducing hydrostatic pressure on the wall.

13. In brick masonry, a 'queen closer' is used to:

a) Increase the wall thickness
b) Decorate the wall
c) Fill the small gap in a course
d) Provide extra support to the wall

Answer:

c) Fill the small gap in a course

Explanation:

A queen closer is a brick cut lengthwise and used to fill small gaps in masonry courses.

14. The main advantage of cavity walls in masonry construction is to:

a) Enhance load-bearing capacity
b) Improve thermal insulation
c) Increase wall thickness
d) Provide aesthetic texture

Answer:

b) Improve thermal insulation

Explanation:

Cavity walls, consisting of two wall layers separated by a hollow space, provide improved thermal insulation and moisture protection.

15. The ratio of height to minimum thickness for a stable masonry wall is known as:

a) Slenderness ratio
b) Aspect ratio
c) Stability ratio
d) Thickness ratio

Answer:

a) Slenderness ratio

Explanation:

The slenderness ratio in masonry walls is a critical factor in determining stability and resistance to buckling.

16. In masonry structures, 'corbeling' is used to:

a) Decorate the wall surface
b) Create a stepped extension of the wall
c) Support the roof structure
d) Provide ventilation

Answer:

b) Create a stepped extension of the wall

Explanation:

Corbeling in masonry is the technique of projecting successive courses of bricks or stones from the face of the wall to form a ledge or extension.

17. Which type of stone masonry uses irregularly shaped stones without mortar?

a) Ashlar masonry
b) Rubble masonry
c) Dry masonry
d) Polygonal masonry

Answer:

c) Dry masonry

Explanation:

Dry masonry involves laying stones without mortar, relying on their natural shape for stability.

18. The process of soaking bricks in water before use is important to:

a) Increase their strength
b) Reduce their weight
c) Prevent them from absorbing moisture from the mortar
d) Enhance their color

Answer:

c) Prevent them from absorbing moisture from the mortar

Explanation:

Soaking bricks before use ensures that they do not absorb water from the mortar, which can weaken the bond.

19. A 'pier' in masonry construction is primarily used for:

a) Decoration
b) Supporting arches and beams
c) Providing openings in walls
d) Increasing wall thickness

Answer:

b) Supporting arches and beams

Explanation:

A pier is a vertical masonry support, often used to carry the load of arches, beams, and other structural elements.

20. The main difference between 'coursed' and 'uncoursed' rubble masonry is:

a) The use of mortar
b) The size of the stones
c) The regularity of the courses
d) The method of laying the stones

Answer:

c) The regularity of the courses

Explanation:

In coursed rubble masonry, stones are laid in regular horizontal courses, while in uncoursed rubble masonry, stones are laid without any regular courses.

21. In masonry, 'pointing' refers to:

a) Painting the surface
b) Finishing the joints with a suitable mortar
c) Aligning the bricks in a straight line
d) Marking the wall for openings

Answer:

b) Finishing the joints with a suitable mortar

Explanation:

Pointing in masonry is the process of finishing the mortar joints with a fine mortar to improve appearance and protect the joints from weathering.

22. The primary purpose of a 'butterfly' or 'header' tie in cavity wall construction is to:

a) Support the roof
b) Connect the two leaves of the wall
c) Provide a decorative finish
d) Increase thermal insulation

Answer:

b) Connect the two leaves of the wall

Explanation:

Butterfly or header ties are used in cavity walls to connect the inner and outer leaves, ensuring stability and distributing loads.

23. The 'compressive strength' of masonry is most significantly affected by:

a) The color of the bricks
b) The type of mortar used
c) The size of the masonry units
d) The weather conditions during construction

Answer:

b) The type of mortar used

Explanation:

The compressive strength of masonry is significantly influenced by the strength and bonding capabilities of the mortar.

24. A 'bond beam' in masonry construction is used to:

a) Enhance aesthetic appeal
b) Increase the height of the wall
c) Provide horizontal reinforcement
d) Support vertical loads

Answer:

c) Provide horizontal reinforcement

Explanation:

A bond beam is a horizontal structural element, often reinforced with steel, used to distribute loads and provide additional strength to the masonry wall.

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