Civil Engineering MCQ – Strength of Materials

Comprehensive MCQ questions and answers in Strength of Materials are readily accessible to aid Civil Engineering students in preparing for GATE exams, various technical interviews, competitive examinations, and other entrance exams. The Strength of Materials MCQ section is a pivotal chapter for both Civil Engineering and GATE students.

1. Stress is defined as:

a) External force applied on an object
b) Resistance per unit area
c) Deformation of a material
d) Change in volume of a material

Answer:

b) Resistance per unit area

Explanation:

Stress is the internal resistance offered by a material when subjected to an external force, measured as force per unit area.

2. Strain in a material is:

a) The external force applied
b) The temperature change
c) The deformation per unit length
d) The weight of the material

Answer:

c) The deformation per unit length

Explanation:

Strain is the measure of deformation representing the displacement between particles in the material body relative to a reference length.

3. The modulus of elasticity of a material is a measure of:

a) Its ductility
b) Its brittleness
c) Its stiffness or rigidity
d) Its plasticity

Answer:

c) Its stiffness or rigidity

Explanation:

The modulus of elasticity, also known as Young's modulus, is a measure of the stiffness or rigidity of a material.

4. A material that deforms permanently under stress is said to have undergone:

a) Elastic deformation
b) Plastic deformation
c) Brittle fracture
d) Fatigue

Answer:

b) Plastic deformation

Explanation:

Plastic deformation refers to the permanent deformation or change in shape of a material when subjected to a stress exceeding its yield strength.

5. The point on a stress-strain curve beyond which the material does not return to its original shape is known as:

a) Elastic limit
b) Yield point
c) Ultimate strength
d) Breaking point

Answer:

a) Elastic limit

Explanation:

The elastic limit is the maximum stress that a material can withstand without undergoing permanent deformation.

6. The ability of a material to absorb energy when deformed elastically and to return it when unloaded is known as:

a) Toughness
b) Resilience
c) Stiffness
d) Strength

Answer:

b) Resilience

Explanation:

Resilience is the ability of a material to absorb and release energy within the elastic limit.

7. A material's resistance to fracture when a crack is present is referred to as its:

a) Toughness
b) Ductility
c) Hardness
d) Elasticity

Answer:

a) Toughness

Explanation:

Toughness is the measure of a material's ability to absorb energy up to fracture, including both elastic and plastic deformation.

8. Which property describes a material's ability to be drawn into wires?

a) Ductility
b) Brittleness
c) Malleability
d) Hardness

Answer:

a) Ductility

Explanation:

Ductility is the property of a material that allows it to be drawn or stretched into wires without breaking.

9. Compressive strength of a material is its ability to:

a) Withstand pushing or squeezing forces
b) Resist pulling or stretching forces
c) Bend without breaking
d) Return to its original shape after deformation

Answer:

a) Withstand pushing or squeezing forces

Explanation:

Compressive strength is the capacity of a material to withstand axially directed pushing forces.

10. The property of a material that allows it to be hammered or rolled into thin sheets is known as:

a) Malleability
b) Ductility
c) Brittleness
d) Toughness

Answer:

a) Malleability

Explanation:

Malleability is a material's ability to deform under compressive stress, often characterized by the material's ability to form a thin sheet when hammered or rolled.

11. In materials science, 'fatigue' is defined as:

a) Permanent deformation of a material
b) Failure of a material under repeated cyclic loading
c) Increase in length under tension
d) Stiffness of a material

Answer:

b) Failure of a material under repeated cyclic loading

Explanation:

Fatigue is the weakening or failure of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads, typically below the material's ultimate tensile strength.

12. The phenomenon where a material elongates under tensile stress is known as:

a) Compression
b) Shear
c) Creep
d) Elongation

Answer:

d) Elongation

Explanation:

Elongation is the increase in length of a material when subjected to tensile stress.

13. Buckling is a failure mode associated with:

a) Tensile loading
b) Compressive loading
c) Shear loading
d) Torsional loading

Answer:

b) Compressive loading

Explanation:

Buckling is a failure mode typically associated with compressive loading where a structural member becomes unstable and deforms under certain critical load conditions.

14. Shear stress is defined as the:

a) Force applied perpendicular to the surface
b) Force applied parallel to the surface
c) Force causing twisting
d) Force causing bending

Answer:

b) Force applied parallel to the surface

Explanation:

Shear stress occurs when a force is applied parallel to the surface of a material, causing layers within the material to slide past each other.

15. The point on the stress-strain curve where the material starts to deform plastically is the:

a) Elastic limit
b) Proportional limit
c) Yield point
d) Ultimate strength point

Answer:

c) Yield point

Explanation:

The yield point is the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically, and beyond which it will not return to its original shape.

16. Creep in materials refers to:

a) Sudden failure under stress
b) Gradual deformation over time under constant load
c) Instantaneous deformation under load
d) Expansion due to temperature

Answer:

b) Gradual deformation over time under constant load

Explanation:

Creep is the slow, progressive deformation of a material under constant load or stress over time.

17. The measure of a material's ability to resist scratching and wear is known as:

a) Hardness
b) Toughness
c) Stiffness
d) Ductility

Answer:

a) Hardness

Explanation:

Hardness is the measure of how resistant a material is to various kinds of permanent shape change when a compressive force is applied.

18. The modulus of rigidity is associated with:

a) Tensile stress
b) Compressive stress
c) Shear stress
d) Bending stress

Answer:

c) Shear stress

Explanation:

The modulus of rigidity, also known as shear modulus, is a measure of a material's rigidity or stiffness when subjected to shear stress.

19. A material that returns to its original shape after the load is removed is said to behave:

a) Plastically
b) Elastically
c) Viscously
d) Rigidly

Answer:

b) Elastically

Explanation:

Elastic behavior is when a material returns to its original shape and size after the removal of the load that caused the deformation.

20. The property of a material to withstand impact without shattering is known as:

a) Toughness
b) Brittleness
c) Hardness
d) Elasticity

Answer:

a) Toughness

Explanation:

Toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing, which reflects the material's capacity to resist impact.

21. Poisson's ratio is the ratio of:

a) Axial stress to axial strain
b) Lateral strain to axial strain
c) Shear stress to shear strain
d) Compressive stress to tensile stress

Answer:

b) Lateral strain to axial strain

Explanation:

Poisson's ratio is the ratio of lateral strain (perpendicular to the applied load) to axial strain (in the direction of the applied load) in a stretched material.

22. A material fails by brittle fracture when it:

a) Deforms plastically before failure
b) Shows significant elongation before failure
c) Breaks without significant deformation
d) Undergoes necking before failure

Answer:

c) Breaks without significant deformation

Explanation:

Brittle fracture is characterized by the sudden and rapid cracking of a material under stress, with little or no prior plastic deformation.

23. The ability of a material to resist various kinds of permanent deformation under stress is known as:

a) Malleability
b) Ductility
c) Strength
d) Toughness

Answer:

c) Strength

Explanation:

Strength is the ability of a material to resist various forms of failure under stress, including tensile, compressive, and shear stresses.

24. In the context of materials science, 'anisotropy' refers to:

a) Uniform properties in all directions
b) Different properties in different directions
c) The same properties under different temperatures
d) Properties that change over time

Answer:

b) Different properties in different directions

Explanation:

Anisotropy in materials science means that a material exhibits different physical properties in different directions.

25. The property of a material that enables it to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture is known as:

a) Brittleness
b) Stiffness
c) Ductility
d) Hardness

Answer:

c) Ductility

Explanation:

Ductility is the property of a material that allows it to undergo significant plastic deformation before rupture, often measured by the material's ability to be stretched into a wire.

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