Principles and Processes of Biotechnology Class 12 NEET MCQ

1. Gel electrophoresis is used for

a) Construction of recombinant DNA by joining with cloning vectors
b) Isolation of DNA molecules
c) Cutting of DNA into fragments
d) Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

Answer:

d) Separation of DNA fragments according to their size

Explanation:

Gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the separation of DNA, RNA, or protein molecules based on their size and charge.

2. The linking of antibiotic resistance gene with the plasmid vector become possible with

a) DNA polymerase
b) Exonucleases
c) DNA ligase
d) Endonucleases

Answer:

c) DNA ligase

Explanation:

DNA ligase is an enzyme that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together, making it possible to link antibiotic resistance genes with plasmid vectors.

3. Polyethylene glycol method is used for

a) Biodiesel production
b) Seedless fruit production
c) Energy production from swage.
d) Gene transfer without a vector.

Answer:

d) Gene transfer without a vector.

Explanation:

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to enhance the fusion of cell membranes, thereby facilitating the transfer of genes without the use of vectors.

4. Which one of the following is used as vector for cloning genes into higher organisms?

a) Baculovirus.
b) Salmonella typhimurium.
c) Rhizopus nigricans
d) Retrovirus

Answer:

d) Retrovirus

Explanation:

Retroviruses are often used as vectors for gene therapy and cloning in higher organisms due to their ability to integrate their genetic material into the host cell’s genome.

5. DNA or RNA segment tagged with a radioactive molecule is called:

a) Vector
b) Probe
c) Clone
d) Plasmid

Answer:

b) Probe

Explanation:

A probe is a fragment of DNA or RNA labeled with a radioactive or fluorescent molecule, used to locate specific sequences in DNA or RNA.

6. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes which:

a) Make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule.
b) Recognize a specific nucleotide sequence for binding of DNA ligase.
c) Restrict the actions of the enzyme DNA polymerase.
d) Remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA molecules.

Answer:

a) Make cuts at specific positions within the DNA molecule.

Explanation:

Restriction endonucleases recognize specific DNA sequences and cut at these sites, making them crucial for genetic engineering and molecular biology studies.

7. Stirred-tank bioreactors have been designed for:

a) Addition of preservatives to the products
b) Purification of the product.
c) Ensuring anaerobic conditions in the culture vessel.
d) Availability of oxygen throughout the process.

Answer:

d) Availability of oxygen throughout the process.

Explanation:

Stirred-tank bioreactors ensure a uniform and well-mixed environment which helps in the adequate supply of oxygen needed for the microbial processes.

8. Which of the following are used in gene cloning?

a) Nucleoids
b) Lomasomes
c) Mesosomes
d) Plasmids

Answer:

d) Plasmids

Explanation:

Plasmids are small, circular DNA molecules separate from chromosomal DNA, often used as vectors in gene cloning for carrying and replicating foreign DNA fragments.

9. There is a restriction endonuclease called EcoRI. What does the “co” part in it stand for?

a) Colon
b) Coelom
c) Coenzyme
d) Coli

Answer:

d) Coli

Explanation:

The name EcoRI is derived from the species name of the bacteria from which it was isolated, Escherichia coli.

10. Agarose extracted from seaweeds is used in:

a) Spectrophotometry
b) Tissue culture
c) PCR
d) Gel electrophoresis

Answer:

d) Gel electrophoresis

Explanation:

Agarose gel is used in electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments based on their size.

11. Which one of the following techniques made it possible to genetically engineer living organisms?

a) Recombinant DNA techniques
b) X-ray diffraction
c) Heavier isotope labeling
d) Hybridization

Answer:

a) Recombinant DNA techniques

Explanation:

Recombinant DNA technology allows for the combination of DNA molecules from different sources into one molecule, facilitating genetic engineering.

12. A single strand of nucleic acid tagged with a radioactive molecule is called:

a) Vector
b) Selectable marker
c) Plasmid
d) Probe

Answer:

d) Probe

Explanation:

Probes are single-stranded nucleic acid sequences labeled with radioactive or fluorescent molecules used to locate specific sequences within DNA or RNA.

13. Which one of the following is a case of wrong matching?

a) Somatic Hybridization- Fusion of two diverse cells
b) Vector DNA- Site for tRNA synthesis
c) Micropropagation- in vitro production of plants in large numbers
d) Callus- Unorganized mass of cells produced in tissue culture

Answer:

b) Vector DNA- Site for tRNA synthesis

Explanation:

Vector DNA is used as a carrier to transfer foreign genetic material into another cell, not for tRNA synthesis.

14. Which one is a true statement regarding DNA polymerase used in PCR?

a) It is used to ligate introduced DNA in recipient’s cells
b) It serves as a selectable marker
c) It is isolated from a virus
d) It remains active at high temperature

Answer:

d) It remains active at high temperature

Explanation:

DNA polymerase used in PCR, particularly Taq polymerase, remains active at the high temperatures required for denaturation of DNA strands.

15. For transformation, micro-particles coated with DNA to be bombarded with a gene gun are made up of:

a) Silver or platinum
b) Platinum or zinc
c) Silicon or platinum
d) Gold or tungsten

Answer:

d) Gold or tungsten

Explanation:

Micro-particles coated with DNA for transformation are usually made of gold or tungsten to ensure effective delivery of the DNA into the target cells.

16. Biolistics (gene-gun) is suitable for:

a) Disarming pathogen vector
b) Transformation of plant cells
c) Constructing recombinant DNA by joining with vectors
d) DNA fingerprinting

Answer:

b) Transformation of plant cells

Explanation:

The gene gun is used in biolistics, a method to deliver DNA into plant cells, aiding in their transformation for genetic engineering purposes.

17. In genetic engineering, the antibiotics are used for:

a) As selectable markers
b) To select healthy vectors
c) As a sequence from where replication starts
d) To keep the culture free of infection

Answer:

a) As selectable markers

Explanation:

Antibiotics are used as selectable markers in genetic engineering to identify and select genetically transformed cells.

18. Which of the following is not correctly matched for the organism and its cell wall degrading enzyme?

a) Algae – Methylase
b) Fungi – Chitinase
c) Bacteria – Lysozyme
d) Plant cells – Cellulase

Answer:

a) Algae – Methylase

Explanation:

Methylase is not a cell wall degrading enzyme; it is an enzyme involved in the methylation of molecules.

19. DNA fragments generated by the restriction endonucleases in a chemical reaction can be separated by

a) Electrophoresis
b) Restriction mapping
c) Centrifugation
d) Polymerase chain reaction

Answer:

a) Electrophoresis

Explanation:

Electrophoresis is a technique used to separate DNA fragments based on size.

20. An analysis of chromosomal DNA using the southern hybridization technique does not use

a) Electrophoresis
b) Blotting
c) Autoradiography
d) PCR

Answer:

d) PCR

Explanation:

PCR is not a part of Southern hybridization technique; it is a separate method used to amplify DNA sequences.

21. In vitro clonal propagation in plants is characterized by

a) PCR and RAPD
b) Northern blotting
c) Electrophoresis and HPLC
d) Microscopy

Answer:

d) Microscopy

Explanation:

Microscopy is not a technique of in vitro clonal propagation. The propagation is done through tissue culture techniques.

22. Which vector can clone only a small fragment of DNA?

a) Bacterial artificial chromosome
b) Yeast artificial chromosome
c) Plasmid
d) Cosmid

Answer:

c) Plasmid

Explanation:

Plasmids are small DNA molecules within cells that are physically separated from chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria.

23. Commonly used vectors for human genome sequencing are

a) T- DNA
b) BAC and YAC
c) Expression vectors
d) T/A cloning vectors

Answer:

b) BAC and YAC

Explanation:

Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BAC) and Yeast Artificial Chromosomes (YAC) are used as vectors for cloning large fragments of DNA in human genome sequencing projects.

24. wo microbes found to be very useful in genetic engineering are:

a) Crown gall bacterium and Conorhabditis elegans
b) Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumifaciens
c) Vibrio cholerae and a tailed bacteriophage.
d) Diplococcus species and Pseudomonas

Answer:

b) Escherichia coli and Agrobacterium tumifaciens

Explanation:

Escherichia coli (a bacterium) and Agrobacterium tumifaciens (a soil bacterium) are extensively used in genetic engineering for cloning and gene transfer respectively.

25. Which enzyme is used to join two pieces of DNA together?

a) Helicase
b) DNA ligase
c) Restriction endonuclease
d) DNA gyrase

Answer:

b) DNA ligase

Explanation:

DNA ligase is responsible for joining two DNA fragments by creating phosphodiester bonds between them.

26. Which method is used to amplify DNA sequences?

a) Electrophoresis
b) Transformation
c) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
d) Southern blotting

Answer:

c) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

Explanation:

PCR is a method used to exponentially amplify a specific sequence of DNA.

27. Which of the following is not a method for introducing foreign DNA into cells?

a) Microinjection
b) Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
c) Biolistics
d) Electrophoresis

Answer:

d) Electrophoresis

Explanation:

Electrophoresis is used to separate DNA fragments based on size and not for introducing DNA into cells.

28. Which molecule acts as a molecular scissors in genetic engineering?

a) DNA polymerase
b) RNA polymerase
c) Restriction endonuclease
d) Reverse transcriptase

Answer:

c) Restriction endonuclease

Explanation:

Restriction endonucleases recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at these specific sites.

29. What is the role of a promoter in a cloning vector?

a) It helps in the replication of the vector.
b) It ensures that the inserted gene is transcribed.
c) It provides antibiotic resistance.
d) It aids in the integration of the vector into the host genome.

Answer:

b) It ensures that the inserted gene is transcribed.

Explanation:

A promoter is a DNA sequence that initiates gene transcription.

30. Which technique is commonly used to identify individuals based on their DNA profiles?

a) ELISA
b) Northern blotting
c) DNA fingerprinting
d) PCR

Answer:

c) DNA fingerprinting

Explanation:

DNA fingerprinting is used to analyze DNA patterns in individuals for identification purposes.

31. RNA interference (RNAi) is used in biotechnology to:

a) Amplify RNA sequences.
b) Translate RNA to protein.
c) Silence specific genes.
d) Replicate RNA molecules.

Answer:

c) Silence specific genes.

Explanation:

RNAi is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression by neutralizing targeted mRNA molecules.

32. The term “cDNA” refers to:

a) Circular DNA.
b) Cloned DNA.
c) Complementary DNA.
d) Cytosine-rich DNA.

Answer:

c) Complementary DNA.

Explanation:

cDNA is synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme reverse transcriptase.

33. Which organism is commonly used as a host for cloning DNA in genetic engineering?

a) C. elegans
b) Drosophila melanogaster
c) Escherichia coli
d) Homo sapiens

Answer:

c) Escherichia coli

Explanation:

Escherichia coli, a bacterium, is frequently used as a host for DNA cloning due to its ease of manipulation and rapid growth.

34. Which of the following is NOT a component of a typical PCR reaction?

a) DNA template
b) Taq polymerase
c) Restriction enzymes
d) Primers

Answer:

c) Restriction enzymes

Explanation:

While restriction enzymes are crucial for cutting DNA at specific sites, they are not typically used in the PCR amplification process.

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